28 Apr Winter is coming – our tips on preparing your horse for winter
The days are getting shorter, the nights are getting colder…winter is coming. Winter is a season that can be tough on horses due to cold temperatures, wind, rain and the decrease of nutrition in their pastures.
It can be a difficult time to maintain your horse’s weight, immunity and general health, and can be especially challenging for older horses and those that struggle to gain and maintain weight. The best thing you can do is prepare your horse for winter, so in this article we’ll cover:
Why cold temperatures increase your horse’s need for energy
How being in good condition helps your horse stay warm and healthy
How to help older horses maintain weight
Our top tips for managing nutrition in winter
How your horse’s daily diet can keep them warm
The key to managing your horses in winter is to BE PROACTIVE! Prepare your horse for winter now. Don’t wait until it arrives, or you notice your horse dropping condition.
Why Cold Temperatures Increase your Horse’s Energy Requirements:
Just like with humans, animals have a core temperature that their body needs to maintain for their vital organs to function. When the outside temperature decreases, your horse’s body needs to work much harder to maintain its core temperature. This requires energy! Energy can come from their daily feed consumption and reserves that are stored in the body as fat.
The cold temperatures in winter mean a horse will have a greater energy requirement than in the summer months. If their feed intake doesn’t change to reflect this, their body starts to put all their consumed (eaten) calories and energy into maintaining their body temperature. When this happens, they are not putting energy into their health, or their growth, and you can often see growth rates decrease…not a good thing for young horses.
Pasture growth tends to slow down in winter and have a decreased feed value, so they rely more on us to make sure their diet meets all of their nutritional requirements. If they don’t have adequate energy in their diets, they will start pulling from their energy stores to maintain warmth and this is where weight loss sneaks in. By preparing your horse for winter early, you can ensure they have some energy stored, and their diet has been adjusted slowly to reflect any changes.
– As outside temperature decreases – energy requirements increase
– Pasture growth slows down in winter and it’s feed value decreases
– Prepare early to lay energy stores and adjust diet slowly
Why being in good condition keeps them warm:
If you think about a horse in the wild, they would start to build up their body condition in the autumn, so they have a little bit of extra ‘padding’ to help keep them warm and to burn over the winter months. As ‘managers’ of our horse’s diets, we need to help them replicate this natural reaction.
Not only does a winter coat help insulate a horse against cold temperatures, but a layer of body fat acts like a blanket. Horse’s in good condition can withstand temperatures as low as -40C!
You might hear people talk about an animal’s surface area (skin surface) to volume (insides) ratio. A horse that is in lighter condition or a younger horse that is all gangly will have a high surface area to volume ratio (SA:Vol). Generally, as a horse gets rounder or grows, the SA:Vol ratio gets lower. Ever heard the term ‘filling out’?
The SA:Vol rule – the ‘rounder’ the animal, the lower the SA:Vol ratio.
Why is SA:Vol Ratio important? Well, when it comes to body temperature, an animal’s surface area is where it loses most of its body heat! So, in winter, if a horse has a SA:Vol ratio that is too high, it will lose more heat, which is not ideal. Preparing your horse for winter can allow you to lower your horses SA:Vol ratio through good condition to prevent unnecessary heat loss.
– A bit of body fat can provide your horse with a layer of insulation
– SA:Vol Ratio influences heat loss from their body – a horse in poorer condition will lose more body heat.
– Prepare early and try to lower your horses’s SA:Vol ratio through condition
How your horse's daily diet keeps them warm
Did you know that a horse has it’s own central heating system? It produces heat and can keep itself warm by digesting food!
A horse’s body produces heat following the consumption of feed through the processes
of digestion, nutrient metabolism and fermentation in the hindgut. This heat
production is known as the Heat Increment (HI) of feeding.
Forages and fibres have a higher heat increment than grains because of the work involved in digestion, and the high levels of fermentation that occur as the bacteria break it down. Fermentation itself is a process which gives off heat.
You should make sure that you are feeding a minimum of 1.5% to 2% of your horse’s body weight in hay (fibre) every day. For a 500kg horse, that’s between 7.5 and 10kg of hay per day! A diet high in fibre and low in starch, not only gives off heat through fermentation, but feeds the good
bugs in your horse’s gut. The more good bacteria they have, the more fermentation occurs, and the more they can access Volatile Fatty Acids as a source for fuel, the more easily they maintain condition and the warmer they become.
Make sure the hay you are feeding is good quality. You might be feeding lots of hay, but if it is poor quality, the horse still isn’t getting the calories they need.
As with any dietary changes, make sure you prepare your horse early and start making your changes slowly, so they are well adjusted by the time winter comes around.
– High fibre diets have a higher heat increment and keep your horse warmer
– Fibre feeds good bacteria, which encourages more fermentation (warmth) and access to the energy they need.
– Make any dietary changes slowly – be proactive by preparing your horse for winter
Make our Horse Cubes Senior Formula into a warm porridge!
Just add warm water and allow to soak.
The highly palatable formula will make a delicious, warming mash to chase away the winter chills - ideal for your golden oldie!
Why your older horse Struggles in winter:
Older horses are often the ones who struggle the most during winter, for many if not all of the reasons we talked about above. They are often harder to keep condition on so lack insulation, their SA:Vol is low, and their gut bacteria have decreased over time! But it’s not all bad, just understanding why winter is hard on them can help you fight the effects with your Golden Oldie.
Older horses can struggle to maintain condition: because an oldie can be harder to add condition to, they might not have the layer of body fat that helps them keep warm. Their body will have to work harder and use what stores they do have.
A horse’s digestive system ages too: as your horse ages, so does their digestive system! It becomes more inefficient, often unable to break down grass and forage as effectively as a young horse. This is in part due to the natural decrease in gut bacteria. As good gut bacteria are essential for fermenting fibre, and fermentation keeps a horse warm, this is a problem in winter!
An old horse’s teeth have a lot of wear: An aged horse will have often worn down the grinding surface of its molars, and their incisors become less efficient at tearing and biting. At any time of year, oldies need a feed that is easy to bite, chew and digest, but this is especially important in winter.
Older horses tend to have a high SA:Vol ratio: many older horses tend to have a higher SA:Vol ratio, as their muscle mass decreases. As discussed above, a high SA:Vol ratio will see them losing more heat.
T&R's Horse Cubes Senior Formula is a great option for winter for horses of all ages:
- It is high in quality fibre to maximise warmth
- It is highly digestible for those older horses who need help
- It is a high calorie feed for energy, adding and maintaining condition
- It contains pre and probiotics to promote gut health
Our Top tips for Fighting the effects of winter
So what do you need to do to help your horse, young or old, get through winter in great condition and health? Here are our top tips for feeding your horse through winter:
1. Be proactive! If you have a horse prone to weight loss, currently in poorer condition or an older horse, work hard on adding some weight and condition to them now, to help with insulation and energy reserves. You need to make any feed changes slowly, so preparing your horse for winter starts now.
2. Increase your horse’s intake of fibre. Fibre and forage are the feed ingredients that contribute to your horse’s warmth the most! The digestion and fermentation of fibre produces heat, and they also promote the healthy bacteria in your horse’s gut. Good levels of good bacteria means they can access more energy from Volatile Fatty Acids. They should be getting a 1.5-2% of their body weight minimum.
3. Try to use quality fibre sources: the higher quality your hay or fibre source is, the higher it will be in calories. This is especially important in winter, where calorie intake is important for maintaining condition and providing energy. If your hay quality isn’t high, or you’re worried about fibre intake, try to add a feed that is high in quality fibre.
4. Add some oil for additional calories: adding just 20-60ml of Canola or Linseed oil can boost the calories and energy for your horse. It is great for oldies especially as it is easily digestible. The Omega-3 and Omega-6 will also keep their coat healthy – and a good coat is like a good jumper!
5. Pre and Probiotics can help: they can help promote the healthy gut bacteria that digests and ferments fibre and absorbs nutrients. Especially in older horses who’s bacterial populations have decreased, a boost can help them to convert their fibre to energy and warmth.
If you’ve got any questions, don’t hesitate to ask us! We’re here to help. Contact Us.